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Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) Discussion
 
(Caution: Version displayed is not the latest version. - Issued 0813Z Jan 22, 2018)
 
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Abbreviations and acronyms used in this product
 
Geographic Boundaries -  Map 1: Color  Black/White       Map 2: Color  Black/White


QUANTITATIVE PRECIPITATION FORECAST DISCUSSION
NWS WEATHER PREDICTION CENTER COLLEGE PARK MD
313 AM EST MON JAN 22 2018


PRELIM DAY 1...DAY 2 AND DAY 3 QPF DISCUSSION
VALID JAN 22/1200 UTC THRU JAN 25/1200 UTC
REFERENCE AWIPS GRAPHICS UNDER...PRECIP ACCUM - 24HR

DAY 1

CENTRAL PLAINS---UPPER MS VALLEY INTO THE GREAT LAKES

THE STRONG CENTRAL PLAINS CLOSED LOW WILL BE PUSHING STEADILY EAST
NORTHEASTWARD INTO THE LOWER MO/MID MS VALLEY REGION MONDAY AND
TOWARD THE SOUTHWEST LOWER LAKES REGION BY EARLY TUESDAY. 
OVERALL---THERE IS GOOD MASS FIELD EVOLUTION AGREEMENT
WITH THIS SYSTEM AND ON THE WIDESPREAD MODERATE TO HEAVY PRECIP
POTENTIAL STRETCHING FROM EASTERN PORTIONS OF THE CENTRAL
PLAINS---THROUGH THE UPPER MS VALLEY AND INTO THE GREAT LAKES.  A
WELL DEFINED COMMA HEAD/DEFORMATION PRECIPITATION BAND WILL
PERSIST TO THE NORTH AND NORTHEAST OF THE MID TO UPPER LEVEL
CENTER---WITH HEAVY SNOWS LIKELY THROUGH MUCH OF THIS BAND FROM
FAR EASTERN NE---NORTHERN IA---SOUTHEAST MN---CENTRAL TO NORTHERN
WI INTO THE NORTHERN L.P. AND MUCH OF THE U.P. OF MI---EASTWARD
ACROSS SOUTHERN QB AND INTO NORTHERN MAINE.  SEE THE LATEST QPFHSD
FOR ADDITIONAL WINTER WEATHER INFORMATION.

MID TO LOWER MS VALLEY---TN AND OH VALLEYS---CENTRAL TO SOUTHERN
APPALACHIANS INTO THE SOUTHEAST

PW VALUES EXPECTED TO BE ABOVE AVERAGE...1 TO 2+ STANDARD
DEVIATIONS ABOVE THE MEAN---ALONG THE TRAILING COLD FRONT
EMANATING FROM THE LOW HEADED TOWARD THE GREAT LAKES.  THIS FRONT
SHOULD BE FAIRLY PROGRESSIVE DAY 1 AS IT PUSHES EASTWARD FROM ITS
INITIAL POSITION ALONG THE MID TO LOWER MS VALLEY---EASTWARD
THROUGH THE OH VALLEY-TN VALLEY AND INTO THE CENTRAL TO SOUTHERN
APPALACHIANS-SOUTHEAST U.S. BY EARLY TUESDAY.  THE ORGANIZED
CONVECTION CURRENTLY ALONG AND AHEAD OF THIS FRONT WILL LIKELY
BECOME LESS ORGANIZED AFTER 1200 UTC.  THIS AND THE EXPECTED QUICK
MOVEMENT SHOULD LIMIT THE HEAVY PRECIPITATION POTENTIAL---WITH
MOSTLY AREAL AVERAGE MODERATE TOTAL EXPECTED---WITH LOCALLY HEAVY
AMOUNTS POSSIBLE. 

FL PANHANDLE INTO NORTHERN FLORIDA

MUCH OF THE MODEL GUIDANCE--HOWEVER---IS SHOWING A SECOND SURGE OF
CONVECTION POSSIBLY FORMING OVER THE NORTHEAST GULF OF MEXICO THIS
AFTERNOON AND AFFECTING THE FL PANHANDLE AND NORTH FLORIDA INTO
MONDAY NIGHT/EARLY TUESDAY MORNING.  STILL A LOT OF DIFFERENCES
WITH RESPECT TO THE QPF DETAILS HERE LEADING TO LOW CONFIDENCE. 
HOWEVER---WITH MOST MODELS SHOWING POTENTIAL FOR HEAVY RAINS
ACROSS THESE AREAS--PRECIP TOTALS WERE INCREASED FROM PREVIOUS
FORECASTS.

PACIFIC NORTHWEST---NORTHERN CALIFORNIA INTO THE NORTHERN ROCKIES

SHORTWAVE ENERGY WILL BE PUSHING QUICKLY EASTWARD DAY 1 FROM THE
PACIFIC NORTHWEST--ACROSS THE NORTHERN GREAT BASIN AND INTO THE
NORTHERN ROCKIES.  AN INCREASINGLY ANTICYCLONIC SURFACE TO MID
LEVEL PATTERN WILL SPREAD EASTWARD IN THE WAKE OF THESE HEIGHT
FALLS.  THIS WILL LEAD TO LESSENING SHOWER ACTIVITY WITH TIME
MONDAY MORNING FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST/NORTHERN CALIFORNIA AND
INTO THE NORTHERN ROCKIES.  MOSTLY LIGHT TO MODERATE PRECIP TOTALS
EXPECTED EARLY DAY 1 ACROSS THESE AREAS.

DAY 2/3...


...WEST COAST/NORTHERN ROCKIES...

A POSITIVELY TILTED LONG WAVE TROUGH SLOWLY APPROACHES THE WEST
COAST ON DAY 2...EJECTING SHORT WAVE ENERGY INTO THE INCREASINGLY
FAST MID LEVEL FLOW FROM NORTHERN CA INTO WA. THE SHORT WAVE
ENERGY TAPS DEEPENING PACIFIC MOISTURE...WHICH BECOMES FOCUSED ON
THE HIGHER TERRAIN NEAR THE COAST...RESULTING HEAVY TO LOCALLY
EXCESSIVE RAINFALL OVER FAR NORTHWEST CA INTO SOUTHWEST OR. AS THE
LONG WAVE TROUGH COMES ASHORE ON DAY 3...IT WEAKENS...AND THE
PACIFIC MOISTURE PLUMES WEAKENS AS IT MOVES ACROSS NORTHERN INTO
CENTRAL CA. OVERALL...THERE IS GOOD MODEL AGREEMENT DURING DAY
2...BUT THERE ARE INCREASING MODEL DIFFERENCES CONCERNING WHERE TO
PLACE THE MAXIMUM QPF ON DAY 3. IN AN ATTEMPT TO MITIGATE THE
DIFFERENCES...THE WPC QPF WAS BASED ON A BLEND OF THE 00Z
ECMWF/GFS.

DAY 2...
AS THE LONG WAVE TROUGH SLOWLY APPROACHES THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST
DURING DAY 2...SHORT WAVE ENERGY IS EJECTED INTO THE INCREASINGLY 
FAST MID LEVEL FLOW OVER THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST AND NORTHERN
CA...MAINLY DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE PERIOD. A 50 KNOT LOW 
LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW TRANSPORTS 1.00 INCH PRECIPITABLE WATER AIR
TO THE COAST...WHICH BECOMES FOCUSED OVER THE NORTHERN CA COASTAL 
RANGES...AS WELL AS KLAMATH MOUNTAINS IN SOUTHWEST OR. THE
COMBINATION OF LIFT IN THE LEFT FRONT QUADRANT OF A 110 KNOT JET 
STREAK CROSSING NORTHERN CA AND SOUTHWEST OR AND THE STRONG
UPSLOPE FLOW IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE AN AREA OF 3.00 TO 4.00 INCHES
OF QPF IN THE ABOVEMENTIONED AREA. THESE AMOUNTS ARE SUPPORTED BY
MEMBERS OF THE 00Z GEFS SHOWING 3.00 TO 4.00 INCHES OF QPF HERE. A
MARGINAL RISK REMAINS IN PLACE ACROSS A SMALL PORTION OF NORTHWEST
CA INTO SOUTHWEST OR TO COVER THE FLOOD THREAT. 
 
FURTHER NORTH ACROSS WA AND WESTERN OR...THE SYNOPTIC SCALE LIFT
IS STRONGER...BUT THE DEPTH OF THE MOISTURE IN THE PACIFIC 
MOISTURE PLUME IS NOT AS ROBUST AS FURTHER SOUTH. THE 40 TO 50
KNOT LOW LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW BECOMES FOCUSED ON THE OLYMPIC RANGE
IN WA AND THE NORTHERN OR COASTAL RANGE....ALONG A WARM FRONT
CROSSING WESTERN OR/WESTERN WA. THERE IS A MULTI MODEL SIGNAL FOR
1.50 TO 2.50 INCHES OF QPF HERE...WITH THE HIGHEST AMOUNTS
EXPECTED OVER THE HIGHER PEAKS OF THE OLYMPIC RANGE. LESSER QPF
AMOUNTS (GENERALLY BETWEEN 1.00/2.00 INCHES) ARE EXPECTED OVER THE
WA CASCADES...WHERE LOWERING SNOW LEVEL SHOULD MITIGATE ANY FLOOD
THREAT DURING DAY 2. 
 
FINALLY...SOME OF THE PACIFIC MOISTURE PLUME SURVIVES THE TRIP
INTO THE NORTHERN ROCKIES DURING THE LAST PORTION OF DAY 2.
UPSLOPE FLOW AND SYNOPTIC SCALE ASCENT COMBINE TO PRODUCE LOCAL
0.50 INCH QPF AMOUNTS ACROSS THE NORTHERN BITTERROOT RANGE IN ID. 

DAY 3...
THE PACIFIC MOISTURE PLUME (1.00 INCH PRECIPITABLE WATER AIR ON
THE NOSE OF A 30 TO 40 KNOT LOW LEVEL WEST SOUTHWEST FLOW) AFFECTS
NORTHERN AND CENTRAL CA DURING THE FIRST PART OF DAY 3. THE FLOW
IS NEARLY ORTHOGONAL TO THE NORTHERN CA COASTAL RANGE...AND THE
COMBINATION OF STRONG UPSLOPE FLOW AND SYNOPTIC SCALE ASCENT (AS
SHORT WAVE ENERGY CROSSES NORTHERN CA) IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE AN
AXIS OF 2.00 TO 3.00 INCHES OF QPF OVER THE RANGE. THERE IS A
SPLIT IN THE PLACEMENT OF THE HIGHEST QPF WITH THE ONSHORE
FLOW...AS TIMING ISSUES WITH THE SHORT WAVE ENERGY AFFECTS HOW
QUICKLY THE MOISTURE PLUME DROPS SOUTH AND WEAKENS WITH TIME. FOR
NOW...THE HIGHEST QPF AMOUNTS WERE PLACED BETWEEN POINT ARENA AND
CAPE MENDOCINO. LOWERING SNOW LEVELS WITH LOWERING HEIGHTS COULD
HELP MITIGATE THE FLASH FLOOD THREAT IN THIS AREA. AFTER
COLLABORATING WITH WFO EKA...NO RISK AREA WAS PLACED HERE...AS
HOURLY RAINFALL RATES MAY NOT REACH THE LEVEL OF CONCERN.

AS THE LOW LEVEL FLOW WEAKENS AND DROPS SOUTH...IT BECOMES NEARLY
PERPENDICULAR TO THE SIERRA NEVADA RANGE AFTER 24/12Z. THERE WAS A
MULTI MODEL SIGNAL FOR AN AXIS OF 1.50/2.00 INCHES HERE...AND
GIVEN THE INITIAL STRENGTH OF THE LOW LEVEL FLOW...THESE VALUES
APPEAR PLAUSIBLE. LOWERING SNOW LEVELS HERE SHOULD KEEP ANY
FLOODING ISSUES TO A MINIMUM ON DAY 3.

STRONG SHORT WAVE ENERGY CROSSES THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST JUST AHEAD
OF THE WEAKENING LONG WAVE TROUGH BETWEEN 25/06Z AND 25/12Z. AS
WAS THE CASE ON DAY 2...THE PACIFIC MOISTURE PLUME IS NOT AS
ROBUST AS FURTHER SOUTH...BUT THE COMBINATION OF UPSLOPE IN THE
FORM OF A 30 TO 40 KNOT LOW LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW AND STRONG
SYNOPTIC SCALE ASCENT WILL MAKE THE MOST OF THE MOISTURE IN THE
COLUMN. AXES OF 1.00 TO 1.50 INCHES OF QPF WERE PLACED OVER THE
HIGHER TERRAIN OF THE OLYMPIC RANGE IN WA...AS WELL AS THE
NORTHERN OR COASTAL RANGE...AS WELL AS THE WA/OR CASCADES.
LOWERING SNOW LEVELS SHOULD MITIGATE ANY FLOODING THREAT HERE AS
WELL.

FINALLY...SOME OF THE MOISTURE SURVIVES THE TRIP INTO THE NORTHERN
ROCKIES TOWARD THE END OF DAY 3. THE ENHANCED MOISTURE...UPSLOPE
FLOW AND SYNOPTIC SCALE ASCENT ASSOCIATED WITH SHORT WAVE ENERGY
IN THE FAST MID LEVEL FLOW IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE AXES OF
0.75/1.00 INCHES OF QPF OVER THE NORTHERN BITTERROOT RANGE IN
ID...AS WELL AS THE BLUE MOUNTAINS IN OR.
 
HEAVY SNOWFALL IS POSSIBLE ACROSS THE HIGHER TERRAIN OVER THE
PACIFIC NORTHWEST AND NORTHERN ROCKIES DURING DAYS 2 AND 3. PLEASE
REFER TO THE LATEST SUITE OF WPC WINTER WEATHER PRODUCTS FOR MORE
INFORMATION. 


...GREAT LAKES/MID ATLANTIC/NORTHEAST...

A CLOSED MID LEVEL LOW OVER THE UPPER GREAT LAKES EARLY ON DAY 2
OPENS UP INTO A NEGATIVE LONG WAVE TROUGH AS IT CROSSES NEW
ENGLAND LATE IN THE PERIOD. A COLD FRONT EXTENDING FROM LOW
PRESSURE ASSOCIATED WITH THE MID LEVEL SYSTEM BECOMES THE FOCUS
FOR DEEPENING MOISTURE AND MARGINAL INSTABILITY THAT FEEDS LOW
TOPPED CONVECTION PRODUCING LOCALLY HEAVY RAINFALL. THERE WAS
GENERALLY GOOD MODEL AGREEMENT WITH THE TIMING OF THE SYNOPTIC
SCALE FEATURES...SO THE WPC QPF WAS BASED ON A BLEND OF THE 00Z
ECMWF/GFS.

THE BEST INSTABILITY AHEAD OF THE FRONT IS EXPECTED FROM NORTHEAST
MD/DE ACROSS NJ AND EASTERN PA...CENTERED ON 23/18Z (JUST AHEAD OF
THE FRONTAL PASSAGE...EXPECTED BETWEEN 23/18Z AND 24/00Z). A 50
KNOT LOW LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW TRANSPORTS 1.00/1.25 INCH
PRECIPITABLE WATER AIR AHEAD OF THE FRONT HERE...AND THE RESULTING
LOW TOPPED CONVECTION IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE 0.25 TO 0.50 INCHES
OF QPF ACROSS THE ABOVEMENTIONED AREAS. THESE AMOUNTS ARE WELL
BELOW FLASH FLOOD GUIDANCE...BUT THE RUNOFF FROM THE HEAVY
RAINFALL COULD CAUSES SOME ISSUES WITH RISING RIVER AND
STREAMS...ESPECIALLY IF THEY ARE AFFECTED BY ICE JAMS.

FURTHER NORTH INTO NEW ENGLAND...A 50 TO 70 KNOT LOW LEVEL
SOUTHERLY FLOW PUMPS THE HIGH MOISTURE AIR (WITH PRECIPITABLE
WATER VALUES NEAR AN INCH...WHICH IS BETWEEN TWO AND THREE
STANDARD DEVIATIONS ABOVE THE MEAN) AND MARGINAL INSTABILITY OVER
CENTRAL AND EASTERN NEW ENGLAND...CENTERED ON 23/18Z. A LARGE
SWATH OF 1.00 TO 1.25 INCHES OF QPF STRETCHED FROM SOUTHEAST NY
STATE ACROSS SOUTHERN VT INTO MUCH OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN ME.
LOCAL 1.75 INCH QPF AMOUNTS ARE POSSIBLE OVER DOWNEAST ME...WHERE
THE MOISTURE AND ELEVATED INSTABILITY MAXIMIZE BETWEEN 23/18Z AND
24/00Z. THERE IS STILL A CONSIDERABLE SNOWPACK IN PLACE OVER
DOWNEAST ME...AND THE COMBINATION OF RAINFALL AND SNOWMELT COULD
RESULT IN FLOODING ISSUES. FOR THESE REASONS...A MARGINAL RISK
REMAINS IN PLACE OVER DOWNEAST ME FOR DAY 2.
 

...FL...

A COLD FRONT ASSOCIATED WITH LOW PRESSURE CROSSING EASTERN CANADA
SLOWS AS IT APPROACHES AND CROSSES FL DURING DAY 2. THE FRONT
BECOMES QUASI STATIONARY SOUTH OF THE KEYS DURING DAY 3. MOISTURE
AND INSTABILITY AHEAD OF THE FRONT FEEDS LOW TOPPED CONVECTION
THAT PRODUCES LOCALLY HEAVY RAINFALL...MAINLY ON DAY 3. WHILE
THERE WAS GENERALLY GOOD MODEL AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE TIMING OF
THE SLOWING FRONT...THERE WAS SOME SPREAD ON THE MAGNITUDE OF THE
QPF WITH THE CONVECTION. IN AN ATTEMPT TO MITIGATE SOME OF THE QPF
DIFFERENCES...THE WPC QPF WAS BASED ON A MULTI MODEL BLEND.

DAY 2...
THE SOUTHERN EDGE OF A SLOWING COLD FRONT IMPACTS MUCH OF NORTHERN
AND CENTRAL FL DURING DAY 2. JUST AHEAD OF THE FRONTAL PASSAGE
(GENERALLY BETWEEN 24/00Z AND 24/06Z)...MODEL SOUNDINGS SHOWED
MARGINAL INSTABILITY...AS WELL AS 1.50/1.75 INCH PRECIPITABLE
WATER VALUES...THOUGH THE INFLOW AHEAD OF THE FRONT IS RATHER
WEAK. THE COMBINATION OF MOISTURE AND INSTABILITY SHOULD BE
SUFFICIENT FOR CONVECTION THAT PRODUCES 0.25/0.50 INCHES OF QPF
ACROSS CENTRAL AND SOUTH FL. HIGHER AMOUNTS ARE POSSIBLE WITH ANY
SHORT TERM TRAINING...BUT AT THIS POINT THE FLASH FLOOD THREAT
APPEARS TO BE RATHER LOW.

DAY 3...
THE COLD FRONT SLOWS TO THE POINT WHERE IS BECOMES QUASI
STATIONARY NEAR OR JUST SOUTH OF THE FL KEYS ON DAY 3. WHILE THERE
IS DECENT MODEL AGREEMENT ON THE PLACEMENT OF THE FRONT...THERE IS
SOME SPREAD ON THE AMOUNT OF THE HIGHEST QPF. AT THIS POINT...THE
00Z ECMWF APPEARS TO BE OVERDONE WITH ITS AMOUNTS...BUT SLOW
MOVING CELLS OVER PORTIONS OF SOUTHEAST FL EARLY ON DAY 3 COULD
RESULT IN LOCALLY HIGHER QPF AMOUNTS.


ORAVEC/HAYES


GRAPHICS AVAILABLE ON THE WEB AT www.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov/qpf/qpf2.shtml

24HR QP VT 23/12Z
 0.01 436632 448637 459642 465644 469649 476659 484671 488678
      490682 491687 496704 498712 500719 499739 499750 499754
      499760 496795 494814 488830 481859 477877 473892 468908
      464921 440974 437981 433988 423996 415004 402008 397009
      392005 388002 387997 385990 380979 378972 378963 361943
      361938 362937 366934 371929 373927 375925 374922 374909
      376901 373899 370900 363902 339910 328917 316924 305930
      300933 296937 291940 287946 277956 269965 265968 261970
      257970 255968 251968 250964 248956 249950 253919 253909
      253905 255903 259899 263895 266893 263891 257893 253893
      251891 247888 243884 239878 238874 237870 237864 246839
      251830 258820 274798 287792 302788 314783 325777 332772
      337769 342765 348760 359753 368748 381740 384738 387736
      392732 398728 401726 402723 404715 404708 404698 406694
      406690 409682 410675 411660 412652 413646 420641 427635
 0.01 483338 489333 493327 501310 505301 508292 512282 516275
      520265 521262 522255 522250 520245 516239 513230 510222
      501208 496202 493200 488200 476205 469208 461206 455210
      449213 442215 437219 435223 434229 432234 430236 423239
      422245 417251 413260 410269 407279 407287 411293 418299
      425303 440311 447315 452319 461329
 0.01 536209 537204 537198 538192 537189 537185 534183 532178
      525166 521162 517157 511154 507149 499141 490132 480126
      457098 455095 451093 448094 442095 439094 435093 433091
      428087 424089 426094 429100 424103 420104 419106 420113
      415113 412110 411106 408103 405105 404115 406117 411120
      414126 415132 415137 414140 410145 406149 402153 402155
      404156 409154 412154 414157 416162 417164 419163 422153
      429155 434159 438164 447172 450176 453176 453172 456166
      458164 462163 464163 466166 467170 469172 473176 479178
      483177 490179 496183 500187 507200 509205 513210 521218
      525222 530219 534215 536209
 0.01 497159 496155 494153 491151 488148 485145 482142 477141
      473141 472141 471146 474149 479152 482154 485157 490159
      495159 497159
 0.01 452129 451125 449122 446123 443122 441122 439125 437129
      436134 438138 439136 441134 445133 447133 450131 452129
 0.01 451080 451078 450075 448073 448072 446071 445070 443069
      441069 442072 442074 443075 444077 446078 448078 449080
      449081 451080 451080
 0.01 449051 450046 448044 447041 446039 445036 442035 440037
      440039 441043 443045 444048 446051 448051 449051
 0.01 416220 414215 411213 403209 397203 391198 377192 377198
      377202 372207 365210 359214 356224 358232 358243 358247
      361250 364252 366251 369247 370242 376236 381230 388228
      396229 405229 409228 412226 416220
 0.01 415076 414068 416064 411059 407056 406053 402053 400055
      402058 405058 410063 407065 403065 405068 407075 413076
      415076
 0.25 515264 516256 514249 510236 499214 488208 483208 477210
      473212 472216 473219 486224 489225 491227 493233 496239
      500245 502251 503254 501257 497253 494249 479233 476232
      474232 470236 470239 471242 476246 482249 485255 492266
      499276 503280 508278 515264
 0.25 519186 519183 518179 516177 514174 512172 509171 507172
      506177 507180 509183 511185 512187 515188 517188 519186
 0.25 492308 494301 495295 494289 492287 483270 477264 468261
      453260 445262 440268 438272 436278 435286 437290 439293
      444295 448296 455296 462298 468306 473313 478318 483320
      485318 492308
 0.25 484735 484727 483718 480704 476693 472682 470678 466675
      456679 451679 447679 438683 435685 431689 430695 429701
      432716 428724 427730 427735 427739 426742 423745 419754
      417757 415758 412756 407757 402760 396767 392774 384781
      370795 366801 360809 347823 343830 339840 341859 348867
      352868 349870 343877 335884 322894 316901 313905 312911
      314913 316912 320910 329904 337900 347895 363888 372886
      384886 394888 402892 410897 412901 413904 415916 417929
      416945 414949 410953 405961 402970 400975 401979 403981
      404987 409989 414987 418985 426980 430977 433973 438965
      447949 452938 456928 463908 470888 473874 474862 479836
      481811 483784 484755 484735
 0.25 465224 467219 465216 463215 460215 458215 454216 452217
      451220 453222 455224 458226 461227 464226 465224
 0.25 472158 473156 472153 471151 470150 469149 468147 466146
      464145 463146 462146 461148 460150 460152 460153 462155
      463156 465157 466158 468159 470159 472159 472158
 0.25 459240 460237 458236 457235 455236 454236 453236 451236
      449236 449237 448239 449240 451241 452241 454241 455241
      456241 458240 459240
 0.25 446114 446111 445109 444106 442105 441105 439105 437107
      436107 436109 436112 438113 440113 442114 443114 445114
      446114
 0.25 418844 417833 416825 413818 410812 407803 401804 395806
      387807 380806 377806 374808 369813 368820 363825 360832
      359838 354843 350847 356848 362847 368844 375841 380837
      385833 390831 390836 388839 384843 375853 366861 362867
      362870 364872 371874 375874 379873 389867 401861 412854
      416849 418844
 0.25 309824 306810 305808 302808 296807 290805 287804 283805
      277813 273818 270824 269829 268833 269835 275833 278834
      277836 276853 275859 271863 265872 265876 269880 274882
      280885 278889 278894 280901 284902 290899 294895 297891
      298884 298882 295880 301880 307877 309875 310871 305859
      306844 308834 309824
 0.50 509259 510254 509251 508246 506239 503233 500227 496223
      495225 495230 498236 501240 504247 506253 509259 509259
 0.50 499266 499264 498263 497261 497260 496258 496257 495255
      494254 494253 492251 492250 490251 490252 490253 490255
      491257 491258 492260 493261 494263 495265 497267 498267
      499266
 0.50 478752 478741 477730 475720 473713 471708 469707 464708
      457715 453730 449743 448746 445749 438750 436756 436763
      433779 432786 431790 429791 423791 420798 419804 419811
      422826 424835 423845 422851 420857 417864 414869 412876
      413883 417897 420903 422911 421931 421939 419947 417954
      413958 409963 406969 404975 404979 406982 408983 412982
      417980 422977 427974 435963 441954 447943 453931 457918
      461903 466889 467882 469874 469857 469845 470838 475806
      478790 478774 478752
 0.50 357832 357828 357823 354822 351823 349825 347828 346831
      345834 344836 344840 345844 347844 348844 351842 354839
      355837 357834 357832
 0.50 357877 354874 351875 345879 340884 334888 329891 326894
      324898 323901 326904 333900 338897 345893 351889 354883
      357877
 0.50 303842 304837 303831 300823 297815 292818 289824 286831
      284837 284842 287845 289847 289851 288855 291857 294855
      296851 300846 303842
 1.00 452920 453912 452908 450906 445906 440906 434914 432920
      431927 428940 425952 423961 431957 436955 438952 443942
      448932 452920
 1.00 435840 435839 433840 433842 433845 433847 433850 433852
      433854 434857 434858 435857 435854 434852 435849 434847
      434845 434842 435841 435840
 1.00 418966 417964 416965 415966 416966 417966 418966 

24HR QP VT 24/12Z
 0.01 469621 482617 491619 495623 499627 503633 506638 512651
      517669 518677 521683 523691 524699 522731 521749 521753
      519756 516763 513776 511783 510792 508807 508813 506815
      502821 490839 486844 482849 480857 478864 476871 476877
      472892 467905 465905 462903 460901 459898 459889 458886
      454885 444883 439885 437883 433883 422880 412877 406876
      400874 395870 392865 391862 390858 392851 391843 391838
      392835 390830 387825 384820 379821 376821 373820 367823
      362825 358825 356821 359816 362811 366808 368807 367805
      363805 361803 356804 349805 346805 344807 339810 334811
      323817 321819 318820 312824 293838 285844 274851 265856
      255860 245858 245854 246851 248847 260826 262824 260821
      257817 256815 253816 250819 244819 242817 242815 245805
      247798 251794 259786 264782 267777 274768 278759 281754
      286750 293750 297749 299751 302763 307759 310757 310753
      312747 315742 322733 330724 344706 356689 362679 369668
      372662 374659 378657 389650 402646 414642 426637 433634
      439631
 0.01 416311 425305 436301 458293 470296 473296 477298 483302
      490305 495309 498304 503301 507296 511291 517274 519262
      518252 518244 515237 513230 513223 513211 512207 515206
      525214 528215 530213 534209 536197 536193 535190 531184
      528177 523163 516153 510148 506145 495137 492135 489133
      483128 480124 473123 470122 468125 464129 456138 454140
      450141 444142 442143 438143 435145 434148 433152 434157
      436163 437170 437175 436178 433185 430194 427200 423204
      419203 416205 413207 403216 398220 395225 387237 381248
      378255 373261 365275 363281 365287 369292 375293 381294
      382296 382299
 0.01 528963 529953 528946 520941 515939 510938 505939 502942
      498946 492947 487946 482949 482955 485959 494965 500970
      505973 510974 515973 520971 524969 527965 528963
 0.01 451100 450097 445096 441096 437098 435102 434104 437110
      438112 441116 444121 446121 448116 449109 449104 449101
      451100 451100
 0.01 279923 279916 278911 277904 275900 273896 270894 264894
      260896 256897 252900 249903 247907 244916 243929 240938
      238944 238950 237954 237960 237967 238971 240982 242986
      246988 251988 256986 259978 260972 261967 265956 273939
      276929 279923
 0.25 512279 515261 514253 513246 508231 505220 501209 499203
      498197 499192 500188 502186 505182 505174 501168 493161
      488158 481156 474154 469152 465152 463159 462166 464172
      470183 472190 472196 470198 460200 441206 425220 420223
      414221 411221 409223 405227 400237 393249 381270 378275
      375283 380287 396300 402301 408301 413299 418297 426293
      435289 444283 453280 462277 474277 480280 485282 495290
      501291 505288 510283 512279
 0.25 508664 505653 502645 497637 492631 487626 485625 480624
      467629 458632 452634 443639 436644 430649 422652 403659
      399660 395663 390667 377678 357701 347712 342718 341723
      343727 342730 340734 336740 334745 331747 326753 322760
      320767 315774 318776 321775 328775 335771 343766 348761
      358752 372741 377737 382738 386736 392736 388744 386752
      385761 387769 389772 393771 398766 403761 406763 407770
      411772 414772 421769 427765 431763 434765 437766 440764
      445757 448755 452755 455757 457762 459771 460777 460783
      460787 462789 472788 478787 485782 491775 498760 503744
      507723 508680 508664
 0.25 462176 460172 455169 450169 447172 445179 445183 446188
      448190 451188 455185 458182 461178 462176
 0.25 468873 468871 467868 467867 467866 465864 465863 464862
      463864 463866 464868 464871 464872 464873 466876 467876
      468875 468873
 0.25 449811 450807 447806 443810 439815 437820 435828 435835
      435840 437841 442837 445831 446825 448819 449811
 0.25 429781 426779 423780 420783 417788 415790 413795 412800
      414805 417808 420805 423801 425796 426792 428788 429782
      429781
 0.25 378291 377290 375290 377291 378291
 0.25 298788 297783 294780 289778 284779 279782 276785 267792
      261799 258807 260811 264813 267810 269806 273803 279802
      285800 288797 297790 298788
 0.25 265937 266927 264923 261923 255925 251931 248939 246945
      243954 243958 246962 251960 255955 260949 263943 265937
 0.50 507282 508278 508273 507268 508263 509258 509250 507237
      504225 500215 493206 491199 491193 491184 490178 488173
      488170 487167 486165 484166 481168 478169 477173 477182
      478190 478195 475199 468205 458208 450212 433217 429221
      428225 426227 417227 411227 409231 402240 398244 396250
      391260 387271 386279 383285 387286 391290 396291 401289
      405290 403293 406295 408294 409290 417286 426282 434279
      443274 459266 467265 472264 477266 492282 495284 501286
      505284 507282
 0.50 501661 501655 499650 495644 491636 486632 480630 473631
      464635 458638 431654 424658 416663 410668 406672 400686
      395690 387694 379698 372704 364713 355724 351729 348738
      341753 332762 330765 332767 337766 343761 349756 371737
      381728 394720 402716 411714 416714 419711 422710 425711
      425715 422718 417721 414723 411726 409735 413741 414754
      411759 411764 413765 416764 419761 424757 430752 432752
      435755 437756 438753 440742 443735 448729 453724 458720
      464718 468719 470723 470744 476748 480748 484746 488740
      491734 494726 496717 498697 498675 501661
 0.50 484227 482225 482224 481223 479223 479225 480226 482227
      484227 484227
 0.50 453176 454174 453173 452173 452176 453176
 0.50 257943 259939 258935 256935 255937 253939 252942 250945
      248947 246949 246950 250951 253950 255947 256945 257943
 1.00 503281 505277 504273 503268 502262 500256 498251 495246
      492243 487240 484240 482235 480231 476227 474224 476221
      479218 484219 488221 498240 502238 502234 499224 497218
      495215 491211 486208 482205 478205 470210 453217 452221
      453227 450232 447232 439235 433234 427231 417232 413234
      409237 403243 400248 399252 395278 397281 401279 408273
      416265 422262 430257 439254 449255 459255 466254 472255
      476258 492272 498279 503281
 1.00 491656 490649 487641 482638 477641 472641 465644 457646
      452649 446652 441656 430665 422673 420676 419681 421683
      424683 429680 434675 440672 443672 444676 440690 439699
      437705 432717 430726 430733 433734 434732 438726 442720
      444713 449701 451698 454696 461695 485682 488678 490670
      491656
 1.00 383720 381717 377718 372721 369725 364730 361734 358739
      359741 360740 365736 369732 373729 378725 383720
 1.50 498268 499266 499263 498260 496257 495255 493254 492254
      491255 491258 491259 491260 492263 493264 493265 495267
      496268 498269 498268
 1.50 492217 490216 489215 487214 485214 484215 485215 487216
      488217 490216 492217 492217
 1.50 480239 479234 476231 471231 467235 453235 448236 443237
      436241 434241 432239 430234 423233 420234 416235 412238
      407246 404250 404256 404262 407266 411265 415262 422255
      436245 454243 457243 461240 465247 470248 474247 478244
      480239 480239
 1.50 480213 479211 478210 477210 476210 474211 472214 473214
      475214 477214 479213 480213
 1.50 467672 466664 464659 461658 458660 455663 453669 451674
      450679 451684 454684 457681 460679 465675 467672
 1.50 467219 467217 466217 465216 464216 463216 461217 460217
      459218 457219 456221 457224 458225 460225 462224 463223
      464223 465221 466220 467219
 2.00 476240 477238 477235 476234 474234 473234 472235 471236
      470238 471241 473242 475241 476240
 2.00 430245 430238 429235 425235 420235 417237 414241 412245
      409249 409255 412258 416257 419254 422252 426249 428247
      430245
 3.00 426242 426241 425239 425238 423239 421239 419240 418242
      417244 418246 420247 421245 422245 424244 426242 426242 

24HR QP VT 25/12Z
 0.01 513290 519274 521268 521262 520254 518249 518244 516235
      513227 510217 506213 504210 504206 509203 513204 515206
      518210 519215 521225 523229 525231 527228 528223 531222
      532218 534213 535202 533192 526176 525171 522168 518162
      511152 505146 501142 495136 492135 489132 485126 477123
      471124 467130 455134 452135 450134 446131 444128 442119
      441115 438117 434121 430127 427133 428142 429152 431155
      431160 432164 431166 429164 423158 419153 414150 410149
      408151 403156 396161 390164 387165 386168 386172 389176
      394179 396181 400181 413179 413186 410187 403187 397185
      393185 389186 379178 376177 371176 364175 357177 352181
      349185 348190 347192 347196 350202 352208 354215 352222
      350234 349239 347243 339256 339261 345265 347266 347270
      345274 360286 367288 374288 386285 391284 394283 399284
      404284 413286 415285 418286 425288 431287 435286 439288
      452292 466293 470294 472293 480296 486299 489301 492303
      499306 504305 508301 513293
 0.01 511660 510652 508645 502632 496621 493617 487619 477638
      472650 469664 465666 463671 461673 462676 464680 464685
      459696 456700 454705 451711 449716 448719 449724 449726
      453726 458724 462721 472713 479706 489698 496691 504683
      509672 511660
 0.01 486924 486914 485906 482901 478897 477892 475892 470895
      468900 468910 470917 473922 477927 482927 486924
 0.01 447867 445863 442863 440861 433861 427862 424864 422862
      415863 416868 421870 423872 426872 433871 440871 445868
      447867
 0.01 431176 432173 430171 429173 428173 427173 425174 426176
      428176 430176 431176
 0.01 425796 425791 424789 423784 421782 418782 417785 417788
      416790 416793 418797 419799 422800 424798 425796
 0.01 416842 415833 412824 411814 407808 404805 404800 404796
      407794 407789 404788 402785 399786 386794 380798 377805
      375814 377819 390820 394826 395831 394835 395840 397842
      400841 402839 404836 406834 408835 411843 414845 416842
 0.01 293769 292765 289763 283763 280760 275760 272763 266769
      261775 255782 245795 240800 238811 236814 237819 241826
      246825 249823 253822 257822 261821 264819 268810 272803
      277796 287783 293769
 0.01 291889 289887 286887 278885 276885 275883 276879 277875
      278869 277864 278861 278852 275850 272851 265857 255866
      250871 246877 244885 242891 239900 237909 234915 232923
      231932 231944 232951 231959 231970 231981 232984 234986
      244986 252974 257969 263966 271962 274960 276956 276949
      273942 270933 269929 271925 274919 277913 282906 286900
      291889
 0.25 510276 513269 514262 514250 511241 508232 503221 497213
      492207 491202 491198 496192 503190 510188 514186 513180
      512172 510167 505160 500153 496143 490137 485133 477128
      474129 473136 473140 475142 476144 473145 468143 463143
      456146 450146 446144 441143 437144 436148 436153 439162
      444169 444174 441178 439182 436187 436194 438198 443200
      448199 459191 461187 464184 469180 472176 475178 477188
      480192 480199 477204 473206 467208 460209 451210 443210
      426199 417199 408196 400195 392193 383190 375186 371186
      366188 363191 362193 363195 366198 368203 371206 369210
      365211 363214 361219 362224 364245 363254 365259 365264
      366268 365273 369273 374271 385264 398257 407255 417257
      427260 437262 446263 453265 463266 469268 479274 485279
      491283 495285 500287 504286 508281 510276
 0.25 486233 486230 485229 484227 482226 480226 480227 482228
      482229 483232 485233 486233
 0.25 278786 278782 276780 271778 264780 261784 258789 256793
      256801 256805 259807 263805 267802 271797 275793 278788
      278786
 0.25 265923 265914 264907 263898 261895 258894 254898 251904
      244915 239926 237934 237940 238957 240964 244966 250962
      254958 259943 263931 265923
 0.50 504276 506269 507262 509247 508241 506234 503224 498217
      490213 479208 470210 455214 446216 435214 430214 428210
      426205 423205 420209 414209 406203 399199 393197 389195
      383194 379191 374190 372194 373197 374202 375206 373213
      371217 374239 375249 379252 381256 387257 390255 399250
      406249 415249 435249 449246 458244 468248 482259 495275
      500278 504276
 0.50 502173 503169 502167 498163 494158 489157 483155 479155
      472154 467150 451153 446150 443150 440151 439153 441159
      446168 447177 443182 442185 443188 446189 449188 453184
      457182 461179 459175 457169 456165 458161 461158 465159
      466167 471167 475165 479168 481175 481180 481186 485192
      494185 498180 502173
 0.50 491235 491229 489226 486222 482222 478222 474222 472223
      470226 475228 479231 482234 486237 490237 491235
 0.50 485138 484137 482136 481135 481134 479133 478134 479136
      480137 480138 482139 484139 485138
 0.50 272787 272785 269783 266784 265785 263786 262789 260793
      261797 263799 266798 268797 270795 271792 272789 272787
 0.50 257931 258923 255919 250921 246925 243929 241935 241942
      242948 243950 246950 250947 254941 255937 257931
 1.00 499263 500258 499255 497252 496250 494249 491246 488246
      486247 484248 485251 486254 488255 489257 492260 495262
      497263 499263
 1.00 500235 500232 500231 500230 499227 499226 498224 498223
      496223 495223 494223 494225 493228 494229 494230 495232
      496233 496234 498237 499236 500235
 1.00 484248 483246 482245 481243 481242 480240 480239 479237
      478236 477235 476234 474234 473234 472235 471236 471238
      471240 472241 473242 474244 476245 477246 479247 481247
      482248 484248
 1.00 454238 446233 441233 437235 432235 428231 420224 415216
      410212 407210 389201 381199 381202 385206 390208 391212
      395222 391225 387226 385227 383230 384237 386242 390245
      397246 402245 410244 422245 440241 454238
 1.00 454174 454171 453169 452168 451171 451173 453174 454174
 1.00 401225 400224 398224 398225 400226 401225
 1.50 426239 425236 422233 417231 410229 404230 399231 393231
      391232 389235 389238 390240 397242 403242 409242 415241
      420242 424241 426239
 1.50 411221 411219 410215 407214 403213 400213 397211 393212
      396214 398215 401217 404218 407220 409222 411221
 2.00 421238 419237 418236 416235 414235 413235 411235 409235
      410237 412238 414238 416238 417238 419238 421238 421238
 2.00 406238 407236 405235 404234 402233 400233 399233 397232
      395232 394233 393233 391234 391237 392238 394238 396239
      397239 399239 401239 401240 403240 405239 406238