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Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) Discussion
 
(Caution: Version displayed is not the latest version. - Issued 1056Z Jan 22, 2018)
 
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Abbreviations and acronyms used in this product
 
Geographic Boundaries -  Map 1: Color  Black/White       Map 2: Color  Black/White


QUANTITATIVE PRECIPITATION FORECAST DISCUSSION
NWS WEATHER PREDICTION CENTER COLLEGE PARK MD
556 AM EST MON JAN 22 2018


FINAL DAY 1...DAY 2 AND DAY 3 QPF DISCUSSION
VALID JAN 22/1200 UTC THRU JAN 25/1200 UTC
REFERENCE AWIPS GRAPHICS UNDER...PRECIP ACCUM - 24HR


DAY 1

CENTRAL PLAINS---UPPER MS VALLEY INTO THE GREAT LAKES

THE STRONG CENTRAL PLAINS CLOSED LOW WILL BE PUSHING STEADILY EAST
NORTHEASTWARD INTO THE LOWER MO/MID MS VALLEY REGION MONDAY AND
TOWARD THE SOUTHWEST LOWER LAKES REGION BY EARLY TUESDAY. 
OVERALL---THERE IS GOOD MASS FIELD EVOLUTION AGREEMENT
WITH THIS SYSTEM AND ON THE WIDESPREAD MODERATE TO HEAVY PRECIP
POTENTIAL STRETCHING FROM EASTERN PORTIONS OF THE CENTRAL
PLAINS---THROUGH THE UPPER MS VALLEY AND INTO THE GREAT LAKES.  A
WELL DEFINED COMMA HEAD/DEFORMATION PRECIPITATION BAND WILL
PERSIST TO THE NORTH AND NORTHEAST OF THE MID TO UPPER LEVEL
CENTER---WITH HEAVY SNOWS LIKELY THROUGH MUCH OF THIS BAND FROM
FAR EASTERN NE---NORTHERN IA---SOUTHEAST MN---CENTRAL TO NORTHERN
WI INTO THE NORTHERN L.P. AND MUCH OF THE U.P. OF MI---EASTWARD
ACROSS SOUTHERN QB AND INTO NORTHERN MAINE.  SEE THE LATEST QPFHSD
FOR ADDITIONAL WINTER WEATHER INFORMATION.

MID TO LOWER MS VALLEY---TN AND OH VALLEYS---CENTRAL TO SOUTHERN
APPALACHIANS INTO THE SOUTHEAST

PW VALUES EXPECTED TO BE ABOVE AVERAGE...1 TO 2+ STANDARD
DEVIATIONS ABOVE THE MEAN---ALONG THE TRAILING COLD FRONT
EMANATING FROM THE LOW HEADED TOWARD THE GREAT LAKES.  THIS FRONT
SHOULD BE FAIRLY PROGRESSIVE DAY 1 AS IT PUSHES EASTWARD FROM ITS
INITIAL POSITION ALONG THE MID TO LOWER MS VALLEY---EASTWARD
THROUGH THE OH VALLEY-TN VALLEY AND INTO THE CENTRAL TO SOUTHERN
APPALACHIANS-SOUTHEAST U.S. BY EARLY TUESDAY.  THE ORGANIZED
CONVECTION CURRENTLY ALONG AND AHEAD OF THIS FRONT WILL LIKELY
BECOME LESS ORGANIZED AFTER 1200 UTC.  THIS AND THE EXPECTED QUICK
MOVEMENT SHOULD LIMIT THE HEAVY PRECIPITATION POTENTIAL---WITH
MOSTLY AREAL AVERAGE MODERATE TOTAL EXPECTED---WITH LOCALLY HEAVY
AMOUNTS POSSIBLE. 

FL PANHANDLE INTO NORTHERN FLORIDA

MUCH OF THE MODEL GUIDANCE--HOWEVER---IS SHOWING A SECOND SURGE OF
CONVECTION POSSIBLY FORMING OVER THE NORTHEAST GULF OF MEXICO THIS
AFTERNOON AND AFFECTING THE FL PANHANDLE AND NORTH FLORIDA INTO
MONDAY NIGHT/EARLY TUESDAY MORNING.  STILL A LOT OF DIFFERENCES
WITH RESPECT TO THE QPF DETAILS HERE LEADING TO LOW CONFIDENCE. 
HOWEVER---WITH MOST MODELS SHOWING POTENTIAL FOR HEAVY RAINS
ACROSS THESE AREAS--PRECIP TOTALS WERE INCREASED FROM PREVIOUS
FORECASTS.

PACIFIC NORTHWEST---NORTHERN CALIFORNIA INTO THE NORTHERN ROCKIES

SHORTWAVE ENERGY WILL BE PUSHING QUICKLY EASTWARD DAY 1 FROM THE
PACIFIC NORTHWEST--ACROSS THE NORTHERN GREAT BASIN AND INTO THE
NORTHERN ROCKIES.  AN INCREASINGLY ANTICYCLONIC SURFACE TO MID
LEVEL PATTERN WILL SPREAD EASTWARD IN THE WAKE OF THESE HEIGHT
FALLS.  THIS WILL LEAD TO LESSENING SHOWER ACTIVITY WITH TIME
MONDAY MORNING FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST/NORTHERN CALIFORNIA AND
INTO THE NORTHERN ROCKIES.  MOSTLY LIGHT TO MODERATE PRECIP TOTALS
EXPECTED EARLY DAY 1 ACROSS THESE AREAS.


DAY 2/3...


...WEST COAST/NORTHERN ROCKIES...

A POSITIVELY TILTED LONG WAVE TROUGH SLOWLY APPROACHES THE WEST
COAST ON DAY 2...EJECTING SHORT WAVE ENERGY INTO THE INCREASINGLY
FAST MID LEVEL FLOW FROM NORTHERN CA INTO WA. THE SHORT WAVE
ENERGY TAPS DEEPENING PACIFIC MOISTURE...WHICH BECOMES FOCUSED ON
THE HIGHER TERRAIN NEAR THE COAST...RESULTING HEAVY TO LOCALLY
EXCESSIVE RAINFALL OVER FAR NORTHWEST CA INTO SOUTHWEST OR. AS THE
LONG WAVE TROUGH COMES ASHORE ON DAY 3...IT WEAKENS...AND THE
PACIFIC MOISTURE PLUMES WEAKENS AS IT MOVES ACROSS NORTHERN INTO
CENTRAL CA. OVERALL...THERE IS GOOD MODEL AGREEMENT DURING DAY
2...BUT THERE ARE INCREASING MODEL DIFFERENCES CONCERNING WHERE TO
PLACE THE MAXIMUM QPF ON DAY 3. IN AN ATTEMPT TO MITIGATE THE
DIFFERENCES...THE WPC QPF WAS BASED ON A BLEND OF THE 00Z
ECMWF/GFS.

DAY 2...
AS THE LONG WAVE TROUGH SLOWLY APPROACHES THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST
DURING DAY 2...SHORT WAVE ENERGY IS EJECTED INTO THE INCREASINGLY 
FAST MID LEVEL FLOW OVER THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST AND NORTHERN
CA...MAINLY DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE PERIOD. A 50 KNOT LOW 
LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW TRANSPORTS 1.00 INCH PRECIPITABLE WATER AIR
TO THE COAST...WHICH BECOMES FOCUSED OVER THE NORTHERN CA COASTAL 
RANGES...AS WELL AS KLAMATH MOUNTAINS IN SOUTHWEST OR. THE
COMBINATION OF LIFT IN THE LEFT FRONT QUADRANT OF A 110 KNOT JET 
STREAK CROSSING NORTHERN CA AND SOUTHWEST OR AND THE STRONG
UPSLOPE FLOW IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE AN AREA OF 3.00 TO 4.00 INCHES
OF QPF IN THE ABOVEMENTIONED AREA. THESE AMOUNTS ARE SUPPORTED BY
MEMBERS OF THE 00Z GEFS SHOWING 3.00 TO 4.00 INCHES OF QPF HERE. A
MARGINAL RISK REMAINS IN PLACE ACROSS A SMALL PORTION OF NORTHWEST
CA INTO SOUTHWEST OR TO COVER THE FLOOD THREAT. 
 
FURTHER NORTH ACROSS WA AND WESTERN OR...THE SYNOPTIC SCALE LIFT
IS STRONGER...BUT THE DEPTH OF THE MOISTURE IN THE PACIFIC 
MOISTURE PLUME IS NOT AS ROBUST AS FURTHER SOUTH. THE 40 TO 50
KNOT LOW LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW BECOMES FOCUSED ON THE OLYMPIC RANGE
IN WA AND THE NORTHERN OR COASTAL RANGE....ALONG A WARM FRONT
CROSSING WESTERN OR/WESTERN WA. THERE IS A MULTI MODEL SIGNAL FOR
1.50 TO 2.50 INCHES OF QPF HERE...WITH THE HIGHEST AMOUNTS
EXPECTED OVER THE HIGHER PEAKS OF THE OLYMPIC RANGE. LESSER QPF
AMOUNTS (GENERALLY BETWEEN 1.00/2.00 INCHES) ARE EXPECTED OVER THE
WA CASCADES...WHERE LOWERING SNOW LEVEL SHOULD MITIGATE ANY FLOOD
THREAT DURING DAY 2. 
 
FINALLY...SOME OF THE PACIFIC MOISTURE PLUME SURVIVES THE TRIP
INTO THE NORTHERN ROCKIES DURING THE LAST PORTION OF DAY 2.
UPSLOPE FLOW AND SYNOPTIC SCALE ASCENT COMBINE TO PRODUCE LOCAL
0.50 INCH QPF AMOUNTS ACROSS THE NORTHERN BITTERROOT RANGE IN ID. 

DAY 3...
THE PACIFIC MOISTURE PLUME (1.00 INCH PRECIPITABLE WATER AIR ON
THE NOSE OF A 30 TO 40 KNOT LOW LEVEL WEST SOUTHWEST FLOW) AFFECTS
NORTHERN AND CENTRAL CA DURING THE FIRST PART OF DAY 3. THE FLOW
IS NEARLY ORTHOGONAL TO THE NORTHERN CA COASTAL RANGE...AND THE
COMBINATION OF STRONG UPSLOPE FLOW AND SYNOPTIC SCALE ASCENT (AS
SHORT WAVE ENERGY CROSSES NORTHERN CA) IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE AN
AXIS OF 2.00 TO 3.00 INCHES OF QPF OVER THE RANGE. THERE IS A
SPLIT IN THE PLACEMENT OF THE HIGHEST QPF WITH THE ONSHORE
FLOW...AS TIMING ISSUES WITH THE SHORT WAVE ENERGY AFFECTS HOW
QUICKLY THE MOISTURE PLUME DROPS SOUTH AND WEAKENS WITH TIME. FOR
NOW...THE HIGHEST QPF AMOUNTS WERE PLACED BETWEEN POINT ARENA AND
CAPE MENDOCINO. LOWERING SNOW LEVELS WITH LOWERING HEIGHTS COULD
HELP MITIGATE THE FLASH FLOOD THREAT IN THIS AREA. AFTER
COLLABORATING WITH WFO EKA...NO RISK AREA WAS PLACED HERE...AS
HOURLY RAINFALL RATES MAY NOT REACH THE LEVEL OF CONCERN.

AS THE LOW LEVEL FLOW WEAKENS AND DROPS SOUTH...IT BECOMES NEARLY
PERPENDICULAR TO THE SIERRA NEVADA RANGE AFTER 24/12Z. THERE WAS A
MULTI MODEL SIGNAL FOR AN AXIS OF 1.50/2.00 INCHES HERE...AND
GIVEN THE INITIAL STRENGTH OF THE LOW LEVEL FLOW...THESE VALUES
APPEAR PLAUSIBLE. LOWERING SNOW LEVELS HERE SHOULD KEEP ANY
FLOODING ISSUES TO A MINIMUM ON DAY 3.

STRONG SHORT WAVE ENERGY CROSSES THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST JUST AHEAD
OF THE WEAKENING LONG WAVE TROUGH BETWEEN 25/06Z AND 25/12Z. AS
WAS THE CASE ON DAY 2...THE PACIFIC MOISTURE PLUME IS NOT AS
ROBUST AS FURTHER SOUTH...BUT THE COMBINATION OF UPSLOPE IN THE
FORM OF A 30 TO 40 KNOT LOW LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW AND STRONG
SYNOPTIC SCALE ASCENT WILL MAKE THE MOST OF THE MOISTURE IN THE
COLUMN. AXES OF 1.00 TO 1.50 INCHES OF QPF WERE PLACED OVER THE
HIGHER TERRAIN OF THE OLYMPIC RANGE IN WA...AS WELL AS THE
NORTHERN OR COASTAL RANGE...AS WELL AS THE WA/OR CASCADES.
LOWERING SNOW LEVELS SHOULD MITIGATE ANY FLOODING THREAT HERE AS
WELL.

FINALLY...SOME OF THE MOISTURE SURVIVES THE TRIP INTO THE NORTHERN
ROCKIES TOWARD THE END OF DAY 3. THE ENHANCED MOISTURE...UPSLOPE
FLOW AND SYNOPTIC SCALE ASCENT ASSOCIATED WITH SHORT WAVE ENERGY
IN THE FAST MID LEVEL FLOW IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE AXES OF
0.75/1.00 INCHES OF QPF OVER THE NORTHERN BITTERROOT RANGE IN
ID...AS WELL AS THE BLUE MOUNTAINS IN OR.
 
HEAVY SNOWFALL IS POSSIBLE ACROSS THE HIGHER TERRAIN OVER THE
PACIFIC NORTHWEST AND NORTHERN ROCKIES DURING DAYS 2 AND 3. PLEASE
REFER TO THE LATEST SUITE OF WPC WINTER WEATHER PRODUCTS FOR MORE
INFORMATION. 


...GREAT LAKES/MID ATLANTIC/NORTHEAST...

A CLOSED MID LEVEL LOW OVER THE UPPER GREAT LAKES EARLY ON DAY 2
OPENS UP INTO A NEGATIVE LONG WAVE TROUGH AS IT CROSSES NEW
ENGLAND LATE IN THE PERIOD. A COLD FRONT EXTENDING FROM LOW
PRESSURE ASSOCIATED WITH THE MID LEVEL SYSTEM BECOMES THE FOCUS
FOR DEEPENING MOISTURE AND MARGINAL INSTABILITY THAT FEEDS LOW
TOPPED CONVECTION PRODUCING LOCALLY HEAVY RAINFALL. THERE WAS
GENERALLY GOOD MODEL AGREEMENT WITH THE TIMING OF THE SYNOPTIC
SCALE FEATURES...SO THE WPC QPF WAS BASED ON A BLEND OF THE 00Z
ECMWF/GFS.

THE BEST INSTABILITY AHEAD OF THE FRONT IS EXPECTED FROM NORTHEAST
MD/DE ACROSS NJ AND EASTERN PA...CENTERED ON 23/18Z (JUST AHEAD OF
THE FRONTAL PASSAGE...EXPECTED BETWEEN 23/18Z AND 24/00Z). A 50
KNOT LOW LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW TRANSPORTS 1.00/1.25 INCH
PRECIPITABLE WATER AIR AHEAD OF THE FRONT HERE...AND THE RESULTING
LOW TOPPED CONVECTION IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE 0.25 TO 0.50 INCHES
OF QPF ACROSS THE ABOVEMENTIONED AREAS. THESE AMOUNTS ARE WELL
BELOW FLASH FLOOD GUIDANCE...BUT THE RUNOFF FROM THE HEAVY
RAINFALL COULD CAUSES SOME ISSUES WITH RISING RIVER AND
STREAMS...ESPECIALLY IF THEY ARE AFFECTED BY ICE JAMS.

FURTHER NORTH INTO NEW ENGLAND...A 50 TO 70 KNOT LOW LEVEL
SOUTHERLY FLOW PUMPS THE HIGH MOISTURE AIR (WITH PRECIPITABLE
WATER VALUES NEAR AN INCH...WHICH IS BETWEEN TWO AND THREE
STANDARD DEVIATIONS ABOVE THE MEAN) AND MARGINAL INSTABILITY OVER
CENTRAL AND EASTERN NEW ENGLAND...CENTERED ON 23/18Z. A LARGE
SWATH OF 1.00 TO 1.25 INCHES OF QPF STRETCHED FROM SOUTHEAST NY
STATE ACROSS SOUTHERN VT INTO MUCH OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN ME.
LOCAL 1.75 INCH QPF AMOUNTS ARE POSSIBLE OVER DOWNEAST ME...WHERE
THE MOISTURE AND ELEVATED INSTABILITY MAXIMIZE BETWEEN 23/18Z AND
24/00Z. THERE IS STILL A CONSIDERABLE SNOWPACK IN PLACE OVER
DOWNEAST ME...AND THE COMBINATION OF RAINFALL AND SNOWMELT COULD
RESULT IN FLOODING ISSUES. FOR THESE REASONS...A MARGINAL RISK
REMAINS IN PLACE OVER DOWNEAST ME FOR DAY 2.
 

...FL...

A COLD FRONT ASSOCIATED WITH LOW PRESSURE CROSSING EASTERN CANADA
SLOWS AS IT APPROACHES AND CROSSES FL DURING DAY 2. THE FRONT
BECOMES QUASI STATIONARY SOUTH OF THE KEYS DURING DAY 3. MOISTURE
AND INSTABILITY AHEAD OF THE FRONT FEEDS LOW TOPPED CONVECTION
THAT PRODUCES LOCALLY HEAVY RAINFALL...MAINLY ON DAY 3. WHILE
THERE WAS GENERALLY GOOD MODEL AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE TIMING OF
THE SLOWING FRONT...THERE WAS SOME SPREAD ON THE MAGNITUDE OF THE
QPF WITH THE CONVECTION. IN AN ATTEMPT TO MITIGATE SOME OF THE QPF
DIFFERENCES...THE WPC QPF WAS BASED ON A MULTI MODEL BLEND.

DAY 2...
THE SOUTHERN EDGE OF A SLOWING COLD FRONT IMPACTS MUCH OF NORTHERN
AND CENTRAL FL DURING DAY 2. JUST AHEAD OF THE FRONTAL PASSAGE
(GENERALLY BETWEEN 24/00Z AND 24/06Z)...MODEL SOUNDINGS SHOWED
MARGINAL INSTABILITY...AS WELL AS 1.50/1.75 INCH PRECIPITABLE
WATER VALUES...THOUGH THE INFLOW AHEAD OF THE FRONT IS RATHER
WEAK. THE COMBINATION OF MOISTURE AND INSTABILITY SHOULD BE
SUFFICIENT FOR CONVECTION THAT PRODUCES 0.25/0.50 INCHES OF QPF
ACROSS CENTRAL AND SOUTH FL. HIGHER AMOUNTS ARE POSSIBLE WITH ANY
SHORT TERM TRAINING...BUT AT THIS POINT THE FLASH FLOOD THREAT
APPEARS TO BE RATHER LOW.

DAY 3...
THE COLD FRONT SLOWS TO THE POINT WHERE IS BECOMES QUASI
STATIONARY NEAR OR JUST SOUTH OF THE FL KEYS ON DAY 3. WHILE THERE
IS DECENT MODEL AGREEMENT ON THE PLACEMENT OF THE FRONT...THERE IS
SOME SPREAD ON THE AMOUNT OF THE HIGHEST QPF. AT THIS POINT...THE
00Z ECMWF APPEARS TO BE OVERDONE WITH ITS AMOUNTS...BUT SLOW
MOVING CELLS OVER PORTIONS OF SOUTHEAST FL EARLY ON DAY 3 COULD
RESULT IN LOCALLY HIGHER QPF AMOUNTS.


ORAVEC/HAYES


GRAPHICS AVAILABLE ON THE WEB AT www.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov/qpf/qpf2.shtml

24HR QP VT 23/12Z
 0.01 436632 459642 464644 466645 468648 475659 483671 490683
      495702 500719 499738 499749 499753 499759 498776 497794
      494812 489827 485841 481859 473892 469908 464920 440974
      437983 433988 423996 414004 404008 397010 393006 388001
      386992 380980 378972 378968 378963 377957 375954 369952
      361943 361939 362936 366934 375924 375907 376903 375899
      369901 353906 339910 328917 316924 306929 301932 297936
      292940 288945 279954 271963 267968 261970 257970 253968
      250964 248957 249950 250942 251936 252921 253913 253905
      257901 262897 266892 262891 258893 254893 251892 247888
      239878 237870 237864 246840 252829 259819 274798 287793
      301788 313783 323777 330774 336770 340766 347762 355755
      368748 381740 383738 387737 392732 401725 404717 404710
      403700 406693 408686 409682 409678 411660 412651 413646
      420641 427635
 0.01 483338 489333 493327 501310 505302 508293 512283 516275
      520265 521261 522255 522250 520246 516239 511222 501208
      496202 492200 489200 476205 469208 466208 462207 459207
      456210 449213 442215 437219 435222 435228 434232 432234
      430236 423239 422245 417251 413260 410269 407279 407286
      411293 418299 424303 433307 440311 447315 452319 461329
 0.01 536209 537203 537198 537189 532178 524166 517157 512154
      507149 500141 494137 490133 480126 457098 454095 451093
      448094 445095 442094 439093 436094 434092 429088 425088
      424090 426094 429100 424103 419105 420112 415114 411108
      409103 405105 404115 405117 410120 414125 415132 416136
      415139 411145 406149 402152 402155 404156 409154 412154
      414156 416162 418164 420162 422153 425153 429155 434159
      437163 446171 451176 453176 453172 455168 457165 462163
      466166 467170 469172 472176 478178 484178 491180 500187
      506199 509206 513210 521218 524222 530219 534215 536209
 0.01 497159 496155 494153 491151 488148 485145 482142 477141
      473141 472141 471146 474149 479152 482154 485157 490159
      495159 497159
 0.01 452129 451125 449123 446122 443122 441122 439125 437129
      436134 438138 439136 441134 445133 447133 450131 452129
 0.01 451080 451078 450075 448073 448072 446071 445070 443069
      441069 442072 442074 443075 444077 446078 448078 449080
      449081 451080 451080
 0.01 449051 450046 448044 447041 446039 445036 442035 440037
      440039 441043 443045 444048 446051 448051 449051
 0.01 416220 414215 412213 403209 397204 391198 377192 377198
      377202 375205 372207 365210 359214 356224 358232 357242
      358247 361250 364252 366251 369247 370242 375236 381230
      388228 396229 405229 408228 412226 416220
 0.01 415076 414068 416064 411059 407056 406053 402053 400055
      402058 405058 409061 410063 407065 403065 405068 407075
      413076 415076
 0.25 515264 516256 514249 510236 499214 488208 483208 477210
      474212 472216 473219 486224 489225 491227 493233 496239
      500245 502251 503255 501257 497253 494249 479233 474232
      470236 470239 471242 476246 482249 485254 492266 498275
      503280 508278 515264
 0.25 519186 519183 518179 516177 514174 512172 509171 507172
      506177 507180 509183 511185 512187 515188 517188 519186
 0.25 492308 494301 495295 494290 492287 483270 477264 468261
      453260 445262 440268 436278 435286 437290 439293 443295
      448296 454295 462298 468306 473313 478318 482320 485318
      492308
 0.25 484735 484726 483718 480705 476692 473684 470679 467675
      463675 458679 449679 444680 438683 434686 431689 429701
      432715 430721 428724 427730 427736 426742 422746 419755
      415758 412756 407757 403760 397767 391774 385780 371793
      368797 366801 360809 347823 343832 339839 341859 347867
      352868 349870 343877 335883 322894 316902 313905 312910
      314913 317912 321910 329904 337900 346895 362889 373886
      384886 393888 402892 410897 412901 413904 417927 417935
      416943 414948 411952 406959 403963 402970 401977 403981
      404987 409989 414987 418985 425981 428979 431975 437966
      447949 452938 456929 463909 470888 473875 474862 479836
      481812 483786 484755 484735
 0.25 465224 467219 465216 463215 460215 458215 454216 452217
      451220 453222 455224 458226 461227 464226 465224
 0.25 472158 473156 472153 471151 470150 469149 468147 466146
      464145 463146 462146 461148 460150 460152 460153 462155
      463156 465157 466158 468159 470159 472159 472158
 0.25 459240 460237 458236 457235 455236 454236 453236 451236
      449236 449237 448239 449240 451241 452241 454241 455241
      456241 458240 459240
 0.25 446114 446111 445109 444106 442105 441105 439105 437107
      436107 436109 436112 438113 440113 442114 443114 445114
      446114
 0.25 418844 418833 416826 414818 410812 407803 401804 395806
      387807 380806 376806 374808 369813 368820 364825 360831
      359838 354843 350847 356848 361847 368844 375841 380837
      385834 390831 390836 388839 384843 375853 366861 362867
      362870 364872 371874 375874 378873 389867 401861 412854
      416849 418844
 0.25 309824 306810 305808 302808 296807 290805 287804 284805
      277813 273818 270824 269828 268832 269835 275833 278834
      277836 276853 275859 271862 265872 265876 269880 280885
      278889 278894 280901 284902 290899 294895 297891 298884
      298882 295880 301880 307877 309875 310871 307865 305859
      306844 308834 309824
 0.50 509259 510255 509251 508246 506239 503233 500227 496223
      495225 495230 498236 501240 504247 506253 509259 509259
 0.50 499266 499264 498263 497261 497260 496258 496257 495255
      494254 494253 492251 492250 490251 490252 490253 490255
      491257 491258 492260 493261 494263 495265 497267 498267
      499266
 0.50 478752 477731 474714 471708 466707 460711 457715 453730
      449743 446748 439749 437755 436763 433779 432787 429791
      424791 421796 419804 419811 422826 424836 423844 422851
      420857 417864 414869 421931 421939 419947 417954 414957
      409962 406968 404975 404979 406982 409983 412982 417980
      422977 426974 434964 441954 447943 452932 457920 461903
      466889 468881 468875 469857 469846 470838 475807 478791
      478774 478752
 0.50 357832 357828 357823 354822 351823 349825 347828 346831
      345834 344836 344840 345844 347844 348844 351842 354839
      355837 357834 357832
 0.50 357877 355874 351875 345879 340884 334888 329891 326894
      324898 323901 326904 333900 338897 345893 351889 354883
      357877
 0.50 303838 303834 302829 300823 299817 295815 291820 288824
      286831 284837 284839 285843 289846 292847 296846 300842
      303838
 0.50 294870 295864 293860 287858 282860 279863 277866 275870
      275875 278878 282879 285879 288876 292874 294870
 1.00 452920 453912 452908 450906 446906 440906 434914 432920
      431927 428940 425952 423961 431957 436955 438952 443942
      448932 452920
 1.00 435840 435839 433840 433842 433845 433847 433850 433852
      433854 434857 434858 435857 435854 434852 435849 434847
      434845 434842 435841 435840
 1.00 418966 417964 416965 415966 416966 417966 418966 

24HR QP VT 24/12Z
 0.01 469621 482617 489618 494621 501629 503635 507639 510647
      513655 517669 519677 521683 523692 524699 521738 520754
      516766 514772 512779 510793 508810 506816 502821 487842
      484847 481853 478866 475880 472893 466905 462903 459898
      459888 454885 448882 444883 441885 437883 431883 420879
      408875 398872 394869 391863 390858 392851 391842 391838
      392835 389828 385821 384819 381821 376821 374820 370821
      366824 360826 358825 356821 362812 365809 368807 367805
      356804 349805 345805 344807 331814 311824 274851 265856
      253861 247859 245859 245855 246850 249845 261826 262824
      260821 257817 255814 253816 250819 244819 242815 246800
      249796 253792 257789 261785 267777 274768 278759 281754
      286750 294750 297749 299751 301759 303763 305760 310757
      311751 313744 316740 330723 344706 358685 364675 370666
      373661 378657 387652 393649 401646 414642 426637 439631
 0.01 417311 422307 427303 438300 458292 465293 474296 485305
      490308 495309 505301 508295 513288 515281 517271 519261
      519255 518252 517242 514235 513228 512223 512216 512207
      515206 518207 520210 523212 528215 531212 534210 535206
      536195 535190 533188 527175 526172 526167 523162 514150
      503142 493135 483127 479124 472123 467125 462131 454139
      444142 440143 436143 435145 434150 433152 434156 436164
      437170 438174 437177 433185 431192 428199 424203 418204
      412208 403215 399219 396224 388236 381249 377256 374261
      367271 364278 364282 365286 382299
 0.01 528963 529953 528946 520941 515939 510938 505939 502942
      498946 492947 486946 482949 482955 485959 494965 500970
      505973 510974 520971 524969 527965 528963
 0.01 451100 450097 445096 441096 438098 435102 434104 437110
      438112 441116 444121 446121 448116 449109 449104 449101
      451100 451100
 0.01 279923 279915 278911 277904 275900 273896 270894 264894
      260896 255898 252900 247907 244917 243929 239939 238950
      237955 237961 237967 238971 240982 242986 246988 252988
      256986 259978 261966 265956 273939 276929 279923
 0.25 512279 515258 514250 512245 509233 505220 500206 498200
      500191 506182 505174 501168 497164 492160 481156 474154
      471152 467151 465152 463159 462166 465174 470184 472190
      472194 471198 466199 460200 440207 434213 428216 425220
      420223 416222 411221 407225 401235 394247 382269 376278
      375281 377283 380287 381290 384291 388293 397300 402302
      408301 412300 418297 427292 435289 445283 453279 464277
      474277 481279 485282 495290 498291 502291 506288 510284
      512279
 0.25 508664 506653 501643 497636 492631 487627 481624 467629
      460631 451635 443639 437643 431648 424651 406658 399660
      391667 379676 359698 348711 343717 341720 341723 343726
      342730 339736 335743 330748 325754 321763 318770 316772
      317776 329774 337770 343766 349761 354755 366746 372741
      376737 379739 384737 389737 391738 389741 387749 385759
      385765 387770 389773 393771 398765 400762 404761 406763
      407768 409772 412772 419769 428765 430764 434764 436766
      439765 444758 447756 451754 453755 455758 459768 461778
      460785 461788 466789 470788 475787 480786 483784 489778
      493773 496765 499757 502746 506728 507718 508708 507697
      508685 508664
 0.25 462176 460172 455169 450169 447172 445179 445183 446188
      448190 451188 455185 458182 461178 462176
 0.25 468873 468871 467868 467867 467866 465864 465863 464862
      463864 463866 464868 464871 464872 464873 466876 467876
      468874 468873
 0.25 449811 449806 447806 443810 439815 437820 435828 435835
      435840 437841 442837 444831 446825 448819 449811
 0.25 429781 426779 423780 420783 417788 415790 413795 412800
      414805 417808 420805 423801 425796 426792 428788 429781
      429781
 0.25 298788 298784 297782 294780 289777 284779 279782 276785
      267792 261799 258807 260811 264813 267810 269806 270803
      273803 279802 285800 288797 297790 298788
 0.25 265937 266927 264923 261923 255925 251931 248939 246945
      243954 243959 246962 251960 255955 260949 263943 265937
 0.50 507282 508273 507265 510258 510253 508241 505229 501216
      494208 492203 491196 491182 485164 482168 478169 477177
      477185 478191 478195 476198 469204 452210 449212 443214
      434216 431219 429223 427226 425227 419228 415227 411228
      410230 404238 398245 393257 387270 386277 386283 389287
      393291 399290 403289 405290 405294 406296 408294 410289
      415288 423283 431280 448272 455268 460266 464265 469264
      474264 478266 483270 488278 497285 503285 507282
 0.50 501661 501654 499650 494642 490635 485631 479630 472631
      458638 430655 417662 411667 406672 398687 386695 379698
      372704 364713 353725 350731 348739 342751 332762 330765
      332767 339764 350756 371737 384727 395719 403715 412714
      416714 419712 422710 425710 425715 422718 419721 415722
      412724 410727 409731 410736 413744 414755 411760 411764
      413765 419761 426755 431751 435755 438756 439753 440743
      442735 448729 452724 460719 465718 468719 469722 470731
      469742 471745 474747 476748 481748 487743 491736 494728
      496718 498701 498691 498678 501661
 0.50 484227 482225 482224 481223 479223 479225 480226 482227
      484227 484227
 0.50 453176 454174 453173 452173 452176 453176
 0.50 257943 259939 258935 256935 255937 253939 252942 250945
      248947 246949 246950 250951 253950 255947 256945 257943
 1.00 503281 504277 504273 503266 500255 498250 495246 492243
      487240 475226 474223 476220 479218 484218 488221 498239
      502238 503236 499223 497218 493213 485207 481205 478205
      474207 470210 461214 457215 453217 452221 453225 453229
      451231 447232 437235 431233 426231 417232 413233 409237
      402244 399253 395278 397281 402278 408272 414266 422261
      431257 435255 439253 448255 459255 468254 474256 477259
      485265 488268 492272 498279 503281
 1.00 491654 488648 487643 486640 481638 474640 466644 459646
      448651 442655 437659 427668 423672 419678 420682 423683
      429680 433676 438672 442671 443674 443681 442690 440696
      438704 435710 432716 431722 430731 431734 434732 441721
      445709 448702 452696 462693 468690 475688 480685 485681
      489675 491668 491654
 1.00 383720 381717 377717 372720 369725 364730 361734 358739
      359741 360740 365736 369732 373729 378725 383720
 1.50 498268 499266 499263 498260 496257 495255 493254 492254
      491255 491258 491260 492263 493264 493265 495267 496268
      498269 498268
 1.50 492217 490216 489215 487214 485214 484215 485215 487216
      488217 490217 492217
 1.50 480239 479234 475231 471232 467235 450235 433241 431235
      426233 417235 413237 410241 405249 404254 404261 406265
      409266 424254 431249 438244 447244 455243 460241 462241
      465246 469248 473248 476246 480239
 1.50 480213 479211 478210 477210 476210 474211 472214 473214
      475214 477214 479213 480213
 1.50 467219 467217 466217 465216 464216 463216 461217 460217
      459218 457219 456221 457223 457224 458225 460225 462224
      463223 464222 465221 466220 467219
 1.50 463660 462656 461653 458653 453655 451659 449663 450669
      451677 454680 457676 459672 461668 463663 463660
 2.00 476240 476238 477235 476234 474234 473234 472235 471236
      471238 471241 473242 475241 476240
 2.00 430245 430238 429235 425235 420235 417237 414241 411245
      409249 409255 412258 416257 419254 422252 426249 428247
      430245
 3.00 426242 426241 425239 425238 423239 421239 419240 418242
      417244 418246 420247 421245 422245 424244 426242 426242 

24HR QP VT 25/12Z
 0.01 513290 519274 521268 521262 520254 518249 518244 516235
      513227 510217 506213 504210 504206 509203 513204 515206
      518210 519215 521225 523229 525231 527228 528223 531222
      532218 534213 535202 533192 526176 525171 522168 518162
      511152 505146 501142 495136 492135 489132 485126 477123
      471124 467130 455134 452135 450134 446131 444128 442119
      441115 438117 434121 430127 427133 428142 429152 431155
      431160 432164 431166 429164 423158 419153 414150 410149
      408151 403156 396161 390164 387165 386168 386172 389176
      394179 396181 400181 413179 413186 410187 403187 397185
      393185 389186 379178 376177 371176 364175 357177 352181
      349185 348190 347192 347196 350202 352208 354215 352222
      350234 349239 347243 339256 339261 345265 347266 347270
      345274 360286 367288 374288 386285 391284 394283 399284
      404284 413286 415285 418286 425288 431287 435286 439288
      452292 466293 470294 472293 480296 486299 489301 492303
      499306 504305 508301 513293
 0.01 511660 510652 508645 502632 496621 493617 487619 477638
      472650 469664 465666 463671 461673 462676 464680 464685
      459696 456700 454705 451711 449716 448719 449724 449726
      453726 458724 462721 472713 479706 489698 496691 504683
      509672 511660
 0.01 486924 486914 485906 482901 478897 477892 475892 470895
      468900 468910 470917 473922 477927 482927 486924
 0.01 447867 445863 442863 440861 433861 427862 424864 422862
      415863 416868 421870 423872 426872 433871 440871 445868
      447867
 0.01 431176 432173 430171 429173 428173 427173 425174 426176
      428176 430176 431176
 0.01 425796 425791 424789 423784 421782 418782 417785 417788
      416790 416793 418797 419799 422800 424798 425796
 0.01 416842 415833 412824 411814 407808 404805 404800 404796
      407794 407789 404788 402785 399786 386794 380798 377805
      375814 377819 390820 394826 395831 394835 395840 397842
      400841 402839 404836 406834 408835 411843 414845 416842
 0.01 293769 292765 289763 283763 280760 275760 272763 266769
      261775 255782 245795 240800 238811 236814 237819 241826
      246825 249823 253822 257822 261821 264819 268810 272803
      277796 287783 293769
 0.01 291889 289887 286887 278885 276885 275883 276879 277875
      278869 277864 278861 278852 275850 272851 265857 255866
      250871 246877 244885 242891 239900 237909 234915 232923
      231932 231944 232951 231959 231970 231981 232984 234986
      244986 252974 257969 263966 271962 274960 276956 276949
      273942 270933 269929 271925 274919 277913 282906 286900
      291889
 0.25 510276 513269 514262 514250 511241 508232 503221 497213
      492207 491202 491198 496192 503190 510188 514186 513180
      512172 510167 505160 500153 496143 490137 485133 477128
      474129 473136 473140 475142 476144 473145 468143 463143
      456146 450146 446144 441143 437144 436148 436153 439162
      444169 444174 441178 439182 436187 436194 438198 443200
      448199 459191 461187 464184 469180 472176 475178 477188
      480192 480199 477204 473206 467208 460209 451210 443210
      426199 417199 408196 400195 392193 383190 375186 371186
      366188 363191 362193 363195 366198 368203 371206 369210
      365211 363214 361219 362224 364245 363254 365259 365264
      366268 365273 369273 374271 385264 398257 407255 417257
      427260 437262 446263 453265 463266 469268 479274 485279
      491283 495285 500287 504286 508281 510276
 0.25 486233 486230 485229 484227 482226 480226 480227 482228
      482229 483232 485233 486233
 0.25 278786 278782 276780 271778 264780 261784 258789 256793
      256801 256805 259807 263805 267802 271797 275793 278788
      278786
 0.25 265923 265914 264907 263898 261895 258894 254898 251904
      244915 239926 237934 237940 238957 240964 244966 250962
      254958 259943 263931 265923
 0.50 504276 506269 507262 509247 508241 506234 503224 498217
      490213 479208 470210 455214 446216 435214 430214 428210
      426205 423205 420209 414209 406203 399199 393197 389195
      383194 379191 374190 372194 373197 374202 375206 373213
      371217 374239 375249 379252 381256 387257 390255 399250
      406249 415249 435249 449246 458244 468248 482259 495275
      500278 504276
 0.50 502173 503169 502167 498163 494158 489157 483155 479155
      472154 467150 451153 446150 443150 440151 439153 441159
      446168 447177 443182 442185 443188 446189 449188 453184
      457182 461179 459175 457169 456165 458161 461158 465159
      466167 471167 475165 479168 481175 481180 481186 485192
      494185 498180 502173
 0.50 491235 491229 489226 486222 482222 478222 474222 472223
      470226 475228 479231 482234 486237 490237 491235
 0.50 485138 484137 482136 481135 481134 479133 478134 479136
      480137 480138 482139 484139 485138
 0.50 272787 272785 269783 266784 265785 263786 262789 260793
      261797 263799 266798 268797 270795 271792 272789 272787
 0.50 257931 258923 255919 250921 246925 243929 241935 241942
      242948 243950 246950 250947 254941 255937 257931
 1.00 499263 500258 499255 497252 496250 494249 491246 488246
      486247 484248 485251 486254 488255 489257 492260 495262
      497263 499263
 1.00 500235 500232 500231 500230 499227 499226 498224 498223
      496223 495223 494223 494225 493228 494229 494230 495232
      496233 496234 498237 499236 500235
 1.00 484248 483246 482245 481243 481242 480240 480239 479237
      478236 477235 476234 474234 473234 472235 471236 471238
      471240 472241 473242 474244 476245 477246 479247 481247
      482248 484248
 1.00 454238 446233 441233 437235 432235 428231 420224 415216
      410212 407210 389201 381199 381202 385206 390208 391212
      395222 391225 387226 385227 383230 384237 386242 390245
      397246 402245 410244 422245 440241 454238
 1.00 454174 454171 453169 452168 451171 451173 453174 454174
 1.00 401225 400224 398224 398225 400226 401225
 1.50 426239 425236 422233 417231 410229 404230 399231 393231
      391232 389235 389238 390240 397242 403242 409242 415241
      420242 424241 426239
 1.50 411221 411219 410215 407214 403213 400213 397211 393212
      396214 398215 401217 404218 407220 409222 411221
 2.00 421238 419237 418236 416235 414235 413235 411235 409235
      410237 412238 414238 416238 417238 419238 421238 421238
 2.00 406238 407236 405235 404234 402233 400233 399233 397232
      395232 394233 393233 391234 391237 392238 394238 396239
      397239 399239 401239 401240 403240 405239 406238